Somalia – Has the recent western involvement in Somalia been effective?

Somalia – Has the recent western involvement in Somalia been effective?

  Since July 2017, the United States-AFRICOM has dramatically escalated activities in Somalia. This involvement relies heavily on the use of unmanned drones, typically targeting high-profile al-Shabaab figures. Over this period, the US has conducted 44 known air strikes, resulting

Al Shabaab and Boko Haram: Patterns of Violence

Al Shabaab and Boko Haram: Patterns of Violence

Which group is the most violent in Africa? A recent report exploring Africa’s active militant Islamic groups aimed to tackle this question. The report, produced by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), argued that Somalia’s Al Shabaab has eclipsed

Peacekeeping and Violence Against Civilians

Peacekeeping and Violence Against Civilians

Up until the end of the 1990’s, United Nations (UN) peacekeeping (PK) missions did not necessarily specify the protection of civilians (PoC) in their mandate under ‘immediate threats of physical violence’ (Holt et al., 2009). Nor did their mandates clearly

Al Shabaab in Kenya: Emerging Dynamics and Shifts

Al Shabaab in Kenya: Emerging Dynamics and Shifts

In July, US President Barack Obama completed his first official visit to Kenya, which he described as a country ‘at a crossroads – a moment filled with peril, but also enormous pride’ (Obama, 2015). Security was high on the agenda

Al Shabaab in Tanzania: Current Status and Potential Future Patterns

Al Shabaab in Tanzania: Current Status and Potential Future Patterns

Although Tanzania holds a reputation for peace and stability, the country has experienced an increase in violent Islamist-related activity in 2015. The most recent attack occurred on the 14th of April in the eastern Morogoro Region (see Figure 1), when