Strong state capacity is difficult to attain in low-income countries where the state lacks access to resources to aid in effectively implementing policies. As a result, incomes are often used as a proxy measurement to determine the strength of state
Pro-government militias (hereafter PGMs) are a growing risk to the safety of civilians and stability of developing states. Of all active militias operating on behalf of political elites (e.g. rebel leaders, politicians, political parties, warlords, military, government officials, etc.), those
Chinese influence in Africa is on the rise, with China becoming the largest trade partner of the continent (The Economist, 2015) and recently establishing its first mission to the African Union (Reuters, 2015). Chinese aid to Africa has also been
With aid to developing countries at an all time high (OECD, 2014), aid effectiveness – as well as the possible detrimental effects of aid – have been gaining increased attention from both the academic and policy worlds. One of these
Violence against humanitarian workers reached a record high in 2013: according to the United Nations, a total of 460 humanitarian workers were killed, kidnapped or injured in 2013 in various conflict hotspots across the globe (UN News Centre, 19 August 2014).